The laboratory professionally involves many disciplines such as chemistry, physics, microbiology, molecular biology, biosafety, and sensory evaluation. In terms of function, it also involves water supply, drainage, ventilation, exhaust, strong electricity, weak electricity, Air-conditioning, fire fighting, waste gas and liquid treatment, gas supply and other complex process technologies, while also considering many factors such as environmental protection, safety, and sustainable development, it is a complex system engineering.
1. Reasonable positioning and scientific planning
In the process of building a professional laboratory, the "structure" part is very important. It includes the positioning and planning of the laboratory and is the foundation and soul of the entire laboratory construction. Laboratory positioning refers to: the international and domestic positioning of the laboratory (what level to achieve); the positioning of the laboratory in the industry (system); the positioning of the laboratory in the society (exercising government functions, third-party testing The location of the laboratory in its geographic area.
Laboratory planning includes two aspects: one is laboratory building planning, and the other is laboratory process planning. Laboratory building planning includes building appearance, style, height, park layout, etc.; before laboratory construction, laboratory needs need to be investigated. The process includes the entire laboratory planning process. Therefore, a lot of preliminary research work is required to clarify your own Needs and future development directions, we must also extensively inspect the established laboratories of relevant units and learn their experiences and lessons.
In addition, it should be fully realized from the concept that the construction of a professional laboratory is a complex system engineering, that is, the construction of the working environment, but also the construction of the working methods created by the environment, rather than a simple combination of instruments and furniture.
2. Laboratory design should precede civil design
"Construction" should precede "construction". Only when the "construction" is clear can the "construction" begin. Construction is the process of concrete realization of abstract ideas by professional means, including laboratory design, installation, commissioning, maintenance and upgrading.
It should be clearly realized that the experimental building serves the construction of the laboratory and the development of experimental activities. At present, due to the lack of learning or understanding of the relevant laboratory construction standards and specifications by many designers, many laboratories do not fully consider the special requirements of the laboratory for the building in the civil design stage. The correct laboratory construction process is to first consider the functional positioning of the laboratory, and combine the technological requirements of the laboratory to carry out the architectural design of the laboratory; for conventional experimental buildings, the current architectural design can also be carried out according to the scale of good versatility. This requires the construction unit to consult a professional organization with rich experience in laboratory design and construction. The timely intervention of professional institutions in the architectural design phase of the project will play a good role in the scientific design of experimental buildings, especially the internal laboratory of the building, and can avoid more compliance, scientificity, applicability, and practicality. problem. In addition, if possible, Zui Hao invites architects to visit the laboratories of other units to deepen their understanding, which will help the architectural design to meet the requirements of laboratory construction to a greater extent.
Typical architectural design issues include:
1) The overall plan of the laboratory is not carried out, and the division is too simple or unreasonable;
2) The requirements for the separation of the experimental area and the non-experimental area are not considered. For example, the vertical transportation is the problem of the location, and the setting of the living and office areas cannot meet the requirements of the standards and regulations;
3) No ventilation shaft is designed, or the location, size and quantity of the ventilation shaft cannot meet the requirements;
4) The construction requirements of professional laboratories with high requirements for ventilation and air conditioning have not been fully considered, such as negative pressure biosafety laboratories, PCR laboratories, SPF animal rooms, etc., for building height, depth, bays, and column nets;
5) The requirements of special indoor environment parameters are not considered, such as the requirements of the constant temperature and humidity room laboratory for the building;
6) Without considering the respiration requirements of the building, it cannot meet the requirements of future laboratory reconstruction or upgrading;
7) The requirements for instrument layout are not considered.
3. Laboratory design and selection of contractor
Laboratory design and construction units should choose domestic companies with rich experience and certain strength, and must strictly inspect their design, R&D, production and construction capabilities and qualification conditions, and conduct on-site inspections of their completed projects and company locations. The designers of the design unit should be professional, comprehensive, experienced, serious and responsible, and have a stable team. The contractor, Zui Hao, has undertaken construction projects at the laboratory location, so I am familiar with the local situation. In addition, due to the vast territory of our country and the large differences between the north and the south, the ease of construction and subsequent maintenance should be considered. After the design drawings are completed, Zuihao invites third-party organizations and authoritative experts to conduct detailed reviews to avoid unreasonable designs and major defects. In the construction project, the other party should be required to be equipped with a project manager with practical experience, which is conducive to schedule control, resource allocation, communication and coordination.
4. Design of laboratory layout
Laboratory graphic design is the basis of laboratory design, the key to determining whether the laboratory function settings and functional area layout are scientific and reasonable, and the prerequisite for determining whether each laboratory meets the requirements of laws, regulations and standards. Only in accordance with the requirements of functional zoning and work flow can the corresponding layout planning be done to ensure the subsequent professional design of water, electricity and wind, which can be said to affect the whole body. Therefore, the layout design stage should consider the needs of work and development as much as possible, rationally allocate space, and optimize the integration as much as possible. In addition to the optimization of the layout and the design of the placement of instruments and equipment, full consideration should be given to whether the direction of the flow of people and goods meets the work requirements. For example, in order to avoid frequent running of experimenters, the pretreatment room should be on the same floor as the instrument room; the gas cylinder room should be on the same floor as the gas chromatograph, gas mass spectrometer and other instruments as far as possible; as far as possible to ensure the area of a single floor according to functional requirements Optimization to avoid too much or too little floor area; usually, each floor must be equipped with auxiliary rooms such as a decontamination room, sample room, etc., to make reasonable use of space to optimize the experimental process.
5. Laboratory power distribution system
The power distribution system of the laboratory is designed according to the specific requirements of experimental instruments and equipment, and is designed by professional designers through comprehensive factors, which is very different from ordinary buildings. Because laboratory equipment has more complicated requirements for circuits, it is not what people usually think, as long as it meets the requirements of maximum voltage and maximum power. In fact, many instruments and equipment have special requirements for circuits (such as electrostatic grounding, power-off protection, equipotential bonding, etc.). The design of the power distribution system should not only consider the existing equipment and equipment, but also consider the development plan of the laboratory for several years, and fully consider the reservation of the power distribution system and future circuit maintenance. In order to ensure the reliable protection of power, uninterruptible power supply or dual-line design should also be considered. The capacity of the uninterruptible power supply should meet actual needs and ensure that a certain range can be expanded to meet future development needs.
In addition, for some special areas, such as gas cylinder rooms, explosion-proof electrical components should be used to ensure no safety hazards. The wall sockets should be fully considered for requirements. For example, the sample room should have enough refrigerator sockets, the pre-processing room should prepare the centrifuge sockets, the door should be reserved for the automatic shoe cover machine sockets, and the corridors should also consider the distribution of some sockets .
6. Laboratory weak current system
The weak current system of the laboratory mainly includes telephone, monitoring, access control, network, etc. The weak current system has a feature that it cannot be changed after being preset, so it cannot be changed as needed like a strong current line. For example, the network interface should be parallel to the wall plug, and the height should be just higher than the test bench, so that it is convenient for future use. The instrument room should reserve enough network interfaces. Do not use the ground plug form but reserve enough wire to facilitate the connection of the instrument table to the table network interface during installation. If the corridor is very long, you can reserve a telephone line at the far end to make it easier to make and receive calls during work. Because the sound insulation effect is better in the sterile room and outside, the intercom should be preset to facilitate communication. The access control system should be located at the main entrance of each floor of the laboratory or other places where access needs to be controlled. Key facilities and equipment should have communication interfaces in order to realize intelligent management as required.
7. Laboratory air conditioning system
The design of the laboratory air conditioning system should consider the issue of laboratory utilization. Generally, it is advisable to adopt a flexible use form to save energy. Ventilation and air-conditioning systems with incompatible environments shall not be mixed to avoid cross-contamination or explosion and combustion after gas mixing.
The air-conditioning system not only controls the temperature and humidity of the laboratory, but also should cooperate with the laboratory ventilation system to effectively ensure the temperature and humidity of the laboratory and the room pressure difference, so that personnel and precision instruments have a good working environment. If the entire building where the laboratory is located uses central air-conditioning, it must be able to carry out modular management in different regions and time periods, so as to avoid the inability to use air-conditioning during overtime and affect the detection performance of the instrument. The layout of the central air-conditioning pipeline should be combined with the design of the laboratory's ventilation and exhaust pipes to avoid overlapping during construction and affecting the height of the floor. In extreme weather conditions, it should be possible to ensure that the sample room, gas cylinder room, ultra-low temperature refrigerator room, precision instrument room, uninterruptible power supply room and other areas with high temperature requirements maintain constant temperature adjustment for 24 hours.
8. Laboratory fire protection system
The laboratory is a special environment, and the requirements for fire protection are much higher than that of ordinary office buildings. According to the specific conditions of the laboratory (equipment investment and process characteristics, experimental process requirements, types of stored samples and reagents, characteristics of laboratory buildings, etc.), different fire protection measures shall be adopted to ensure the fire safety of the laboratory. For example, for precision instrument rooms, sterile rooms, power distribution rooms, and uninterruptible power supply rooms, automatic sprinklers should not be used for fire protection, but gas fire extinguishing devices should be used to prevent automatic sprinklers from damaging equipment or destroying cleanliness surroundings.
9. Laboratory water supply and drainage system
The pipes of the drainage system should be resistant to acid and alkali corrosion and the melting of materials by organic reagents. PPR or other materials should be used instead of ordinary PVC pipes. At the same time, it should be based on the nature, flow and discharge rules of the sewage and combined with outdoor drainage conditions. set a strategy. Due to the complexity of the sewage pipes in large laboratories, necessary measures should be taken to avoid blockage and leakage of pipes, such as developing good water habits, placing filters, setting traps, and connecting elbows at a 45° angle. The centralized water supply system is not recommended because of its high cost and unstable water quality. In order to avoid secondary pollution, an induction faucet can be used. The disadvantage is that it is easy to break. For aesthetics, the water heater can be a built-in instant electric water heater.
10. Centralized gas supply system in laboratory
The operation of many equipment in the laboratory requires a variety of gas supplies. Centralized gas supply is widely used as a design scheme. Especially in laboratories with large gas consumption and concentrated gas consumption, the value of centralized gas supply will be greatly improved. fully reflect. The safety of the gas cylinder room must be guaranteed, explosion-proof doors, explosion vent windows, gas leakage induction alarm devices must be used, all electrical circuits should be explosion-proof, and lightning protection, anti-static and air conditioning equipment should also be considered.
11. Laboratory ventilation and exhaust system
The laboratory ventilation and exhaust system is one of the largest and most influential systems in the entire laboratory design and construction process. Whether the ventilation and exhaust system is perfect or not has a direct impact on the laboratory environment, the health of the experimenters, and the operation and maintenance of the experimental equipment.
A laboratory with a complete ventilation system should be a workplace with a harmonious, safe and healthy environment. Laboratory noise, the number of air changes in the room, the pressure difference, and the residual toxic gas in the fume hood are all issues worthy of attention. In addition, the sample room and reagent room should also be equipped with ventilation and exhaust equipment to prevent the odor caused by the sample from affecting the environment; a modern laboratory should design a fresh air system; the location of the fresh air outlet (including the air-conditioning outlet) should avoid cold and heat The air directly blows the operator, and more attention should be paid to avoid lateral interference with the inhaled airflow of local exhaust devices such as biological safety cabinets, fume hoods and exhaust hoods.
12. Choice of laboratory furniture
The choice of laboratory furniture should first consider that it can fully meet the needs of the work, which mainly involves elements such as tabletop material, cabinet structure and material, and color matching. For example, the pretreatment room should use acid and alkali-resistant ceramic board countertops, and the instrument room should use physical and chemical board countertops. The structure of the experimental cabinet is mainly divided into three types: steel-wood, all-wood, and all-steel. The support of the experimental table can be divided into C-shaped and back-shaped, which should be determined according to the needs of each unit. The layout, type, and quantity of the experimental benches in each room should also be fully considered. Side tables, central tables, high cabinets, and wall cabinets should be properly matched to avoid inconvenience in future work. In addition, there are some details that should be considered, such as the reasonable configuration of operator and computer positions to avoid inconvenience in future use.
13. Laboratory interior decoration details
The ceiling of the laboratory should adopt the form of small square gusset instead of a large overall structure, which is convenient for construction and later maintenance. In order to facilitate inspection and inspection, floor-to-ceiling glass curtain wall design can be adopted on both sides of the visiting corridor or large instrument room, which is more transparent and bright and easy to manage. The disadvantage is that sockets cannot be reserved at the root of the wall. At the same time, the door has poor stability and high cost. . To achieve the best visual effects in the laboratory, color matching is also a consideration. With reasonable cabinets, countertops, floors, and ceilings, it will highlight its extraordinary high-end features, make visitors unforgettable, and delight users.
14. Commonly used standard specifications involved
GB19489-2008 "Laboratory Biosafety General Requirements"
GB50346-2011 "Building Code for Biosafety Laboratory"
Building Standard 127 "Standard for Laboratory Construction of CDC"
GB 50881-2013 "Technical Code for Construction of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention"
GB 50447-2008 "Technical Code for Laboratory Animal Facilities Construction"
GB 27416-2014 "General Requirements for the Quality and Capability of Laboratory Animal Institutions"
JGT497-2016 "Exhaust air efficient filter device"
GB/T3325-2008 "General Technical Requirements for Metal Furniture"
GB50019-2003 "Design Code for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning"